Aluminum alloy overview:
Aluminum alloy is the most widely used non-ferrous metal structural material in industry.
It has been widely used in automobile, machinery manufacturing, shipbuilding and chemical industries. With the rapid development of science and technology and industrial economy in recent years, the demand for welded structural parts of aluminum alloys is increasing, and the research on the weldability of aluminum alloys is also in-depth. The wide application of aluminum alloy has promoted the development of aluminum alloy welding technology, and the development of welding technology has expanded the application field of aluminum alloy, so the welding technology of aluminum alloy is becoming one of the hot spots of research.
The density of pure aluminum is small (ρ=2.7g/cm3), о 1/3 of that of iron, and its melting point is low (660°C). Aluminum has a face-centered cubic structure, so it has high plasticity (δ: 32~40%, ψ:70~90%), easy to process, and can be made into various profiles and plates. Хорошая коррозионная стойкость; but the strength of pure aluminum is very low, the annealed state σb value is about 8kgf/mm2, so it is not suitable for structural materials. Through long-term production practice and scientific experiments, people have gradually strengthened aluminum by adding alloying elements and using heat treatment, which resulted in a series of aluminum alloys. The alloy formed by adding certain elements can have high strength while maintaining the advantages of pure aluminum such as light weight, and the σb value can reach 24-60kgf/mm2 respectively.
This makes its “specific strength” (the ratio of strength to specific gravity σb/ρ) better than many alloy steels, becoming an ideal structural material, widely used in machinery manufacturing, transportation machinery, power machinery and aviation industry, и т. д.. Aircraft fuselage , Оболочки, compressors, и т. д.. are often made of aluminum alloy to reduce their weight. The welding of aluminum alloy instead of steel plate material can reduce the structural weight by more than 50%. Aluminum alloy has low density, but relatively high strength, which is close to or exceeds high-quality steel. It has good plasticity and can be processed into various profiles. It has excellent electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. It is widely used in industry, and its usage is second only to steel. .
Aluminum alloys are divided into two categories: cast aluminum alloys, which are used in the cast state; deformed aluminum alloys, which can withstand pressure processing. It can be processed into aluminum alloy materials of various shapes and specifications. Mainly used in the manufacture of aviation equipment, building doors and windows, и т. д.. Aluminum alloys can be divided into deformed aluminum alloys and cast aluminum alloys according to processing methods. Deformed aluminum alloys are further divided into non-heat-treatable aluminum alloys and heat-treatable aluminum alloys. The non-heat-treatable type cannot improve the mechanical properties through heat treatment, but can only be strengthened through cold deformation. It mainly includes high-purity aluminum, industrial high-purity aluminum, промышленный чистый алюминий, and anti-rust aluminum.
Heat-treatable and strengthened aluminum alloys can improve mechanical properties through heat treatment such as quenching and aging. It can be divided into duralumin, wrought aluminum, super duralumin and special aluminum alloys. Some aluminum alloys can be heat treated to obtain good mechanical properties, physical properties and corrosion resistance. Cast aluminum alloys can be divided into aluminum-silicon alloys, aluminum-copper alloys, aluminum-magnesium alloys, aluminum-zinc alloys and aluminum rare earth alloys according to their chemical composition. Good performance), special aluminum-silicon alloy (термическая обработка может быть усилена, high mechanical properties, good casting performance)。
Classification of aluminum alloys:
1000 series aluminum alloys represent 1050, 1060, 1100 series. In all series 1000 series
It belongs to a series with the most aluminum content. The purity can reach more than 99.00%. Since it does not contain other technologies
Elements, so the production process is relatively simple, the price is relatively cheap, is the most commonly used in conventional industries
of a series. Most of the current ones in the market are 1050 и 1060 series. 1000 Series Aluminum Sheet
The minimum aluminum content of this series is determined according to the last two Arabic numerals, for example, the last two digits of the 1050 series
The digit of Arabic numerals is 50. According to the international brand naming principles, the aluminum content must reach more than 99.5%.
Qualified product. my country’s aluminum alloy technical standard (gB/T3880-2006) also clearly stipulates that 1050 aluminum content reaches
To 99.5%. In the same way, the aluminum content of the 1060 series aluminum plate must reach more than 99.6%.
2000 series aluminum alloys represent 2024, 2A16 (LY16), 2A02 (LY6). 2000 Series Aluminum
The board is characterized by high hardness, among which copper has the highest content, о 3-5%. 2000 Series Aluminum
Rods belong to aviation aluminum and are not commonly used in conventional industries at present.
3000 series aluminum alloys mainly represent 3003 3004 and 3A21. my country’s 3000 series aluminum plate production process is relatively
for excellent. 3000 series aluminum rods are made of manganese as the main component. The content is between 1.0-1.5, which is an anti-
A series with better rust performance.
4000 series aluminum rods, represented by 4A01 4000 series aluminum plates, belong to the series with higher silicon content. usually
The silicon content is between 4.5-6.0%. It belongs to building materials, mechanical parts, forging materials, welding materials; low melting point, durable
Хорошая коррозионная стойкость, product description: It has the characteristics of heat resistance and wear resistance
5000 series aluminum alloys represent 5052, 5005, 5083, 5A05 series. 5000 series aluminum rods belong to
The more commonly used alloy aluminum plate series, the main element is magnesium, and the magnesium content is between 3-5%. aka aluminum magnesium
сплав. The main features are low density, high tensile strength and high elongation. In the same area of aluminum-magnesium alloy
The weight is lower than other series. It is also widely used in conventional industries. In our country, в 5000 series aluminum plate belongs to relatively
It is one of the mature aluminum plate series.
6000 series aluminum alloy represents that 6061 mainly contains two elements of magnesium and silicon, so the 4000 series aluminum alloy is concentrated
и 5000 Series Advantages 6061 is a cold-worked aluminum forged product suitable for resistance to corrosion, oxidation
demanding applications. Good workability, easy coating, good processability.
7000 series aluminum alloy represents that 7075 mainly contains zinc. It also belongs to the aviation series, which is aluminum magnesium zinc
Copper alloy is a heat-treatable alloy, which belongs to superhard aluminum alloy and has good wear resistance. At present, it basically relies on imports,
my country’s production technology still needs to be improved.
8000 series aluminum alloy is more commonly used as 8011 belongs to other series, most of the applications are aluminum foil,
It is not commonly used in the production of aluminum rods.
9000 series aluminum alloys are the alternate alloys.
Various grades of aluminum alloy series:
1 series industrial pure aluminum: 1035, 1040, 1045, 1050, 1060, 1065, 1070, 1080, 1085,1090, 1098, 1100, 1110, 1120, 1230, 1135, 1145, 1150, 1170, 1175, 1180,1185, 1188, 1190, 1193, 1199, 1200, 1230, 1235, 1260, 1275, 1285, 1345,1350, 1370, 1385, 1435, 1445;
2 series super duralumin: 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011,2014, 2017, 2018, 2021, 2024, 2025, 2030, 2031, 2034, 2036, 2037, 2038,2048, 2090, 2091, 2117, 2124, 2218, 2219, 2224, 2319, 2324, 2419, 2519,
3 series easy-cut aluminum: 3002, 3003, 3004, 3005, 3006, 3007, 3008, 3009, 3010,3011, 3012, 3013, 3014, 3015, 3016, 3102, 3103, 3104, 3105, 3107, 3203,3207, 3303, 3307, 3A12, 3A21;
4 Series Easy Cut Aluminum: 4004, 4006, 4007, 4008, 4009, 4010, 4011, 4013, 4032,4043, 4044, 4045, 4047, 4104, 4145, 4343, 4543, 4643;
5 series magnesium alloy: 5005, 5006, 5010, 5013, 5014, 5016, 5017, 5040, 5042,5043, 5049, 5050, 5051, 5052, 5056, 5082, 5083, 5086, 5150, 5151, 5154,5182, 5183, 5205, 5250, 5251, 5252, 5254, 5280, 5283, 5351, 5352, 5356,5357, 5451, 5454, 5456, 5457, 5552, 5554, 5556, 5557, 5652, 5654, 5657,5754, 5854;
6 series anodized, corrosion resistant aluminum: 6002, 6003, 6004, 6005, 6006, 6007, 6008,6009, 6010, 6011, 6012, 6013, 6014, 6015, 6016, 6017, 6053, 6060, 6061,6063, 6066, 6070, 6081, 6082, 6101, 6103, 6105, 6106, 6110, 6111, 6151,
6162, 6181, 6201, 6205, 6206, 6253, 6261, 6262, 6301, 6351, 6463, 6763,6863, 6951;
7 series aerospace super duralumin: 7001, 7003, 7004, 7005, 7008, 7009, 7010, 7011, 7012,7013, 7014, 7015, 7016, 7017, 7018, 7019, 7020, 7021, 7022, 7023, 7024,7025, 7026, 7027, 7028, 7029, 7030, 7039, 7046, 7049, 7050, 7051, 7060,7064, 7072, 7075, 7075-T651, 7076, 7079, 7090, 7091, 7108, 7109, 7116,7129, 7146, 7149, 7150, 7175, 7178, 7179, 7229, 7277, 7278, 7472, 7475;
8 series aluminum: 8001, 8004, 8005, 8006, 8007, 8008, 8010, 8011, 8014, 8017,8020, 8030, 8040, 8076, 8077, 8079, 8081, 8090, 8091, 8092, 8111, 8112,8130, 8176, 8177, 8192, 8276, 8280;
Typical uses of aluminum alloys:
1050 Squeeze coils for the food, chemical and brewing industries, various hoses, fireworks powder
1060 is required for occasions with high corrosion resistance and formability, but not high requirements for strength, and chemical equipment is a typical example
1100 is used for processing parts that require good formability and high corrosion resistance but do not require high strength
parts, such as chemical products, food industry equipment and storage containers, sheet metal processing parts, deep drawing or spinning concave
Vessels, welding parts, heat exchangers, printed boards, nameplates, reflectors
1145 Packaging and insulating aluminum foil, heat exchangers
1199 Electrolytic capacitor foil, optically reflective deposited film
1350 Wires, Conductive Strands, Busbars, Transformer Strips
2011 Screws and machining products requiring good cutting performance
2014 Applied to occasions requiring high strength and hardness (в том числе высокая температура). Aircraft heavy duty, forgings, thick plates and
Extruded materials, wheels and structural elements, multi-stage rocket first stage fuel tanks and spacecraft parts, рамы грузовиков
и детали подвески 2017 are the first 2XXX series alloys to obtain industrial applications, the current application
The scope of application is narrow, mainly for rivets, general mechanical parts, structures and structural parts of transportation tools, propellers and
2024 Aircraft structures, заклепки, ракетные компоненты, колеса грузовика, propeller elements, and various other structural parts
2036 Auto body sheet metal parts
2048 Aerospace vehicle structural parts and weapon structural parts
2124 Aerospace vehicle structural parts
2218 Aircraft engine and diesel engine pistons, aircraft engine cylinder heads, jet engine impellers and compressors
2219 Space rocket welding oxidant tank, supersonic aircraft skin and structural parts, the working temperature is
-270~300℃. Good weldability, high fracture toughness, T8 state has high resistance to stress corrosion cracking
2319 Welding Rod and Filler Solder for 2219 сплав
2618 Die forgings and free forgings. Pistons and Aero Engine Parts
2A01 Structural rivets with operating temperature less than or equal to 100°C
2A02 Axial compressor blades for turbojet engines with an operating temperature of 200~300°C
2A06 Aircraft structure with working temperature of 150~250℃ and aircraft structure rivet with working temperature of 125~250℃
The strength of 2A10 alloy is higher than that of 2A01 alloy, and it is used to manufacture aircraft structures with working temperature less than or equal to 100°C
2A11 Medium-strength structural parts of aircraft, propeller blades, transportation vehicles and architectural structural parts. sail
Medium Strength Bolts and Rivets for Aircraft
2A12 Aircraft skins, переборки, wing ribs, лонжероны, заклепки, и т. д., construction and transportation structural parts
2A14 Free forgings and die forgings with complex shapes
2A16 Aerospace aircraft parts with working temperature of 250~300℃, welding containers working at room temperature and high temperature
with airtight cockpit
2A17 Aircraft parts with operating temperature of 225~250℃
2A50 Medium-strength parts with complex shapes
2A60 Aircraft engine compressor wheels, wind deflectors, fans, impellers, и т. д..
2A70 Aircraft skins, aircraft engine pistons, wind deflectors, колеса, и т. д..
2A80 Air compressor blades, impellers, pistons, expansion rings and other parts with high working temperature
2A90 Aero engine piston
3003 is used for processing parts that require good formability, high corrosion resistance and good weldability, or both
Works that require these properties and require higher strength than 1XXX series alloys, such as kitchen utensils, food and chemical
Product handling and storage devices, tanks and tanks for transporting liquid products, various pressure vessels and
3004 all-aluminum pop can body, requiring parts with higher strength than 3003 сплав, chemical product production
And storage devices, thin plate processing parts, construction processing parts, construction tools, various lamp parts
3105 Room dividers, baffles, prefab panels, gutters and downspouts, sheet forming parts, bottle caps, bottles
3A21 Aircraft fuel tanks, oil conduits, rivet wires, и т. д.; building materials and food and other industrial equipment, и т. д..
5005 is similar to alloy 3003 in that it has medium strength and good corrosion resistance. Used as a conductor, cooker, instrument
Panels, shells and architectural trim. The anodized film is brighter than that on 3003 alloy and is comparable to 6063
The color tone of the alloy is consistent. The 5050 sheet can be used as the inner lining of refrigerators and refrigerators, automobile air pipes, oil pipes, и т. д..
Pipes and agricultural irrigation pipes; thick plates, pipes, rods, shaped materials and wires can also be processed
5052 This alloy has good formability, устойчивость к коррозии, candleability, fatigue strength and moderate static
Strength, used to manufacture aircraft fuel tanks, oil pipes, and sheet metal parts for transportation vehicles and ships, instruments, street lights
Brackets and rivets, hardware products, и т. д..
5056 magnesium alloy and cable sheath rivets, zippers, nails, и т. д.; aluminum-clad wire is widely used in processing agricultural fishing
Insect cover, and other occasions where high corrosion resistance is required
5083 is used in occasions requiring high corrosion resistance, good weldability and medium strength, such as ships, steam
Vehicle and aircraft plate weldments; pressure vessels that require strict fire protection, refrigeration devices, TV towers, drilling equipment,
Transportation equipment, ракетные компоненты, armor, и т. д..
5086 is used in occasions requiring high corrosion resistance, good weldability and medium strength, such as ships, steam
Vehicles, aircraft, cryogenic equipment, TV towers, drilling equipment, transportation equipment, missile parts and decks, и т. д..
5154 Welded structures, storage tanks, pressure vessels, ship structures and offshore installations, transport tanks
5182 thin plate is used for processing can lids, automobile body panels, control panels, reinforcements, brackets and other parts
5252 is used to manufacture decorative parts with high strength, such as decorative parts of automobiles. after anodizing
With bright and transparent oxide film
5254 Containers for hydrogen peroxide and other chemical products
5356 Welding aluminum-magnesium alloy electrodes and wires with a magnesium content greater than 3%
5454 Welded structures, pressure vessels, piping for marine installations
5456 Armor plates, high-strength welded structures, storage tanks, pressure vessels, ship materials
5457 Polished and anodized decorative parts for automobiles and other equipment
5652 Storage containers for hydrogen peroxide and other chemical products
5657 Polished and anodized trim parts of motor vehicles and other equipment, but in any case must
Ensuring that the material has a fine grain structure
5A02 Aircraft fuel tanks and conduits, welding wires, заклепки, ship structural parts
5A03 Medium-strength welded structures, cold stamped parts, welded containers, welding wire, can be used to replace 5A02 welded
5A05 Welded structural parts, aircraft skin skeleton
5A06 Welded structures, cold forged parts, welded tension container stress parts, aircraft skin bone parts
5A12 Welded structural parts, bulletproof deck
6005 extruded profiles and pipes are used for structural parts that require higher strength than 6063 alloys, such as ladders, TVs
6009 Automobile body panels
6010 Sheet: automobile body
6061 Requires various industrial structures with certain strength, high weldability and corrosion resistance, such as manufacturing trucks, towers
Tubes, rods, shapes, and plates used in buildings, ships, trams, fixtures, mechanical parts, precision machining, и т. д..
6063 Construction profiles, irrigation pipes and extruded materials for vehicles, benches, furniture, fences, и т. д..
6066 Forgings and welded structure extrusion materials
6070 Extruded materials and tubes for heavy-duty welded structures and the automotive industry
6101 High-strength rods for buses, electrical conductors and radiators, и т. д..
6151 is used for die forging crankshaft parts, machine parts and production of rolling rings, which require good forgeability,
Высокая прочность, but also good corrosion resistance
6201 High-strength conductive rods and wires
6205 Slabs, Pedals and High Impact Extrusions
6262 Threaded high stress parts requiring better corrosion resistance than 2011 и 2017 alloys
6351 Extruded structural parts of vehicles, pipelines for water, oil, и т. д..
6463 Construction and various appliance profiles, as well as automotive trim parts with a bright surface after anodizing
6A02 Aircraft engine parts, forgings and die forgings with complex shapes
7005 extruded materials, used to manufacture welded structures that have both high strength and high fracture toughness, такой как
Trusses, rods, containers of transportation vehicles; large heat exchangers, and solid fusion after welding
Processed parts; also used in the manufacture of sports equipment such as tennis racquets and softball bats
7039 Refrigerated containers, cryogenic equipment and storage boxes, fire-fighting pressure equipment, military equipment, armor plates, missiles
7049 is used for forging with the same static strength as 7079-T6 alloy but requires high resistance to stress corrosion cracking
Yongli parts, such as aircraft and missile parts – landing gear hydraulic cylinders and extrusions. Fatigue performance of parts
Roughly equal to 7075-T6 alloy with slightly higher toughness
7050 Plates, extrusions, free forgings and die forgings for aircraft structural parts. Manufacturing such parts against alloys
The requirements are: high resistance to exfoliation corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, fracture toughness and fatigue resistance
7072 Air conditioner aluminum foil and extra thin strip; 2219, 3003, 3004, 5050, 5052, 5154, 6061,
Cladding of 7075, 7475, 7178 alloy sheets and tubes
7075 is used in the manufacture of aircraft structures and futures. He requires high-strength, high-stress structural parts with strong corrosion resistance,
7175 is used for forging high-strength structures for aircraft. T736 material has good comprehensive properties, that is, strength,
High resistance to exfoliation corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, fracture toughness and fatigue strength
7178 For the manufacture of aerospace vehicles requiring high compressive yield strength parts
Aluminum-clad and non-clad plates for the 7475 fuselage, wing frames, stringers, и т. д.. Others must be high and strong
Parts with high strength and high fracture toughness
7A04 Aircraft skin, screws, and stressed components such as girder stringers, переборки, wing ribs, landing gear, и т. д..